Log in

Editor's Picks

Ancient Oaks and Biodiveresity page 1
Aljos Farjon FLS reports on the biodiversity of High Park,...
Website Editor | Jun 28, 2024
David Oliver and the northernmost oak (to date)
Oaks found close to the 70th parallel north
DW Oliver | Jun 28, 2024
Action Oak Report 2023-24
Action Oak is a unique collaboration of charities,...
Annabel Narayanan | Jun 26, 2024

Plant Focus

Quercus peninsularis
A Red Oak (Section Lobatae) endemic to inland ranges of northern Baja California, Mexico

Shoot-Tip Cryopreservation for Oak Conservation

PDF icon Full text available for IOS members only. If you are a member, you need to log in.

To create an account click here; if you have already registered, click here to become a member.

Individual articles can be purchased for U$S 10. If you would like to purchase an article, email a request to website@internationaloaksociety.org

Gillian M. Ross and Valerie C. Pence

Published May 2023 in International Oaks No. 34: 149–158

Abstract

Because conventional seed banking is not an option for oaks, ex-situ conservation requires living collections and/or tissue cryopreservation. Demonstrated cryopreservation options for oaks include zygotic embryos, somatic embryos, and shoot-tips, but the development of these as conservation tools is in its infancy. The objectives of the Oak Cryopreservation Project at the Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife (CREW) are to 1) initiate a variety of species into in-vitro culture, 2) evaluate shoot-tip survival through cryopreservation, and 3) compare shoot-tip and somatic embryo cryopreservation.  To date shoot-propagating cultures of nine species have been initiated, including two threatened species (Quercus hinckleyi and Q. arkansana); four species are in early establishment (including Q. acerifolia), and others are newly cultured (including Q. georgiana). Differences in species’ responses have been observed both in survival through cryopreservation and growth in vitro. For example, the use of the ethylene inhibitor silver thiosulfate (STS) in the growth medium can alter the phenotype of some species but not others. Factors including STS, light intensity, antioxidants, growth temperature, and cryoprotectants have been examined for their effects on cryosurvival. Cold hardening of cultures and post-cryo recovery growth with cooler night temperatures have improved survival through cryopreservation and recovery with some species, particularly Q. virginiana. Other factors examined thus far have not shown a positive effect. Cryopreservation has a demonstrated potential for conservation of oaks, but further work is required to broaden its applicability to all oak taxa.

Keywords

cold hardening, exceptional plant, Quercus

References

Arbor Day Foundation. 2022. Live Oak, Quercus virginiana. https://www.arborday.org/trees/treeguide/TreeDetail.cfm?ItemID=876. Accessed 4 Oct 2022.

Beckman, E., A. Meyer, A. Denvir, D. Gill, G. Man, D. Pivorunas, K. Shaw, and M. Westwood. 2019. Conservation Gap Analysis of Native U.S. Oaks. Lisle, IL: The Morton Arboretum. https://mortonarb.org/app/uploads/2021/05/conservation-gap-analysis-of-native-US-oaks_sm.pdf.

Ballesteros D., A. Nebot, and H.W. Pritchard. 2019.  Cryobiotechnology for the long-term preservation of oak (Quercus sp.) genetic resources. Acta Horticulturae. 1234: 37-46. https://doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.2019.1234.5.

Chang, Y., and B.M. Reed. 2000. Extended Alternating-Temperature Cold Acclimation and Culture Duration Improve Pear Shoot Cryopreservation. Cryobiology 40: 311-322. https://doi.org/10.1006/cryo.2000.2251.

Chen, X.-L., J.-H. Li, X. Xin, Z.-E. Zhang, P.P. Xin, and X.-X. Lu. 2011. Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown apical meristems of Lilium by droplet-vitrification. South African Journal of Botany 77(2): 397-403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2010.10.005. Cork Quality Council. 2022. Cork Oaks in America. https://www.corkqc.com/pages/cork-oaks-in-america. Accessed 4 Oct 2022.

Fernandes, P., E. Rodriguez, G. Pinto, I. Roldán-Ruiz, M. De Loose, and C. Santos. 2008. Cryopreservation of Quercus suber somatic  embryos  by  encapsulation-dehydration  and  evaluation  of  genetic  stability.  Tree  Physiology  28(12):  1841-1850. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/28.12.1841.

Fki, L., N. Bouaziz, O. Chkir, R. Benjemaa-Masmoudi, A. Rival, R. Swennen, N. Drira, and B. Panis. 2013. Cold hardening and sucrose treatment improve cryopreservation of date palm meristems. Biologia Plantarum 57: 375-379. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10535-012-0284-y.

Funnekotter, B., A. Sortey, E. Bunn, S.R. Turner, and R.L. Mancera. 2016. Influence of abiotic stress preconditioning on antioxidant enzymes in shoot tips of Lomandra sonderi (Asparagaceae) prior to cryostorage. Australian Journal of Botany 64(3): 260-268. https://doi.org/10.1071/BT16006.

Gil, L., and M.C. Varela. 2008. EUFORGEN technical Guidelines for genetic conservation and use for cork oak (Quercus suber). Biodiversity International. https://www.bioversity international.org/fileadmin/_migrated/uploads/tx_news/Cork_oak__Quercus_suber__1323.pdf.

Gilman, E.F., D.G. Watson, R.W. Klein, A.K. Koeser, D.R. Hilbert, and D.C. McLean. 2018. Quercus virginiana: Southern Live Oak. UF Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/ST564.

IUCN. 2021. Quercus Stats. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021-3. https://www.iucnredlist.org/search?query=. Accessed on 24 March 2022.

Kushnarenko, S.V., N.V. Romadanova, and B.M. Reed. 2009. Cold acclimation improves regrowth of cryopreserved apple shoot tips. CryoLetters 30(1): 47-54.

Lloyd, G., and B. McCown. 1980. Commercially-feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by use of shoot-tip culture. Combined Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators Society 30: 421-427.

Mathew,  L.,  D.J.  Burritt, A.  McLachlan,  and  R.  Pathirana.  2019.  Combined  pre-treatments  enhance  antioxidant  metabolism and improve survival of cryopreserved kiwifruit shoot tips. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 138: 193-205. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11240-019-01617-3

Menon, A., B. Funnekotter, A. Kaczmarczvk, E. Bunn, S. Turner, and R.L. Mancera. 2012. Cryopreservation of Lomandra sonderi (Asparagaceae) shoot tips using droplet-vitrification. CryoLetters 33(4): 259-270.

Nature Serve Explorer. 2022. Quercus hinckleyi. https://explorer.natureserve.org/Taxon/ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.152274/Quercus_h.... Accessed 4 Mar 2022.

Oaks of the World. 2022. Quercus hinckleyi. http://oaksoftheworld.fr/quercus_hinckleyi.htm.

Panis, B., B. Piette, and R. Swennen. 2005. Droplet vitrification of apical meristems: a cryopreservation protocol applicable to all Musaceae. Plant Science 168(1): 45-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.07.022.

Panta, A., B. Panis, C. Ynouye, R. Swennen, W. Roca, D. Tay, and D. Ellis. 2015. Improved cryopreservation method for the long- term conservation of the world potato germplasm collection. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 120: 117-125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-014-0585-2.

Pence, V.C., and M.F. Chaiken. 2021. Shoot tip cryopreservation as a conservation tool for species of Quercus: Effects of species and environment on recovery. CryoLetters 42(3): 159-167.

Pence, V.C., E. Beckman, A. Meyer, H.W. Pritchard, M. Westwood, J. Linsky, J. Gratzfeld, et al. 2022. Gap analysis of exceptional species —Using a global list of exceptional plants to expand strategic exsitu conservation action beyond conventional seed banking. Biological Conservation 266. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S0006320721004912.