Log in

Editor's Picks

A documentary inspired by a painting of an oak in Israel.
Ezra Barnea | Oct 10, 2020
Oaks have been featured in several operas. Here is a list...
Roderick Cameron | Oct 09, 2020
One of the world's leading oak collections is located in...
Francisco Garin Garcia | Oct 01, 2020

Plant Focus

A guest post by Matt Candeias, host of the In Defense of Plants podcast and blog

Micropropagation of Quercus arbutifolia

PDF icon Full text available for IOS members only. If you are a member, you need to log in.
To create an account click here; if you have already registered, click here to become a member.

Qiansheng Li, Min Deng and Mengmeng Gu

Published May 2019 in International Oaks No. 30: 217–224


Quercus arbutifolia, a native and vulnerable species of section Cyclobalanopsis with only five known populations in China, is suffering severe decline in population size. To increase the number of individuals for further conservation, a micropropagation protocol is investigated. Nodal segments were cut from 2-year-old-seedling shoots as explants for aseptic initiation culture. Woody plant medium (WPM) with 0.5 mg/L BA was optimal for budding initiation to produce initial shoots for further subculture of proliferation. WPM with 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.02 mg/L IBA is suitable for subculture that can vigorously induce shoot regeneration. For rooting in vitro, WPM with 0.1 mg/L IBA and activated charcoal was suitable. Potting mix with 50% peat and 50% coarse perlite was recommended for greenhouse acclimatization.


Quercus arbutifolia, tissue culture, conservation, propagation


Brennan, A.N., V.C. Pence, M.D. Taylor, B.W. Trader, and M. Westwood. 2017. Tissue Culture Using Mature Material for the Conservation of Oaks. HortTechnology 27: 644-649.

Chalupa, V. 1993. Vegetative propagation of oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea) by cutting and tissue culture. Ann. For. Sci. 50: 295s-307s.

Deng, M., A.J. Coombes, and Q.S. Li. 2011. Lectotypification of Quercus arbutifolia (Fagaceae) and the taxonomic treatment of Quercus subsect. Chrysotrichae. Nordic Journal of Botany 29: 208-214.

José, M.C.S., M.T. Martínez, M.J. Cernadas, R. Montenegro, F. Mosteiro, and E.  Corredoira. 2017. Biotechnological efforts for the propagation of Quercus lusitanica Lam., an endangered species. Trees 31: 1571-1581.

Lebtahi, F., M.B. Errahmani, and N. Bouguedoura. 2015. Propagation of Cork Oak (Quercus suber L.) by Axillary Shoot and Somatic Embryogenesis. Propagation of Ornamental Plants 15: 113-122.

Martínez, M.T., E. Corredoira, A.M. Vieitez, M.J. Cernadas, R. Montenegro, A. Ballester, F.J. Vieitez, and M.C. San José. 2017. Micropropagation of mature Quercus ilex L. trees by axillary budding. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC) 131: 499-512.

Martínez, M.T., A.M. Vieitez, and E. Corredoira. 2015. Improved secondary embryo production in Quercus alba and Q. rubra by activated charcoal, silver thiosulphate and sucrose: influence of embryogenic explant used for subculture. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC) 121: 531-546.

Purohit, V.K., S. Tama, S. Chandra Handra, P. Vyas, L.M.S. Palni, and S.K. Nandi. 2002. In vitro multiplication of Quercus leucotrichophora and Q. glauca: Important Himalayan oaks. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 69: 121-133.

Vieitez, A.M., E. Corredoira, M.T. Martínez, M.C. San José, C. Sanchez, S. Valladares, N. Vidal, and A. Ballester. 2012. Application of biotechnological tools to Quercus improvement. European Journal of Forest Research 131: 519-539.

Xu, J., X.L. Jiang, M. Deng, M. Westwood, Y.G. Song, and S.S. Zheng. 2016. Conservation genetics of rare trees restricted to subtropical montane cloud forests in southern China: a case study from Quercus arbutifolia (Fagaceae). Tree Genetics & Genomes 12(5): 90.