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Plant Focus

Quercus texana New Madrid acorn
Disentangling the cultivar published as Quercus texana ‘New Madrid’

Micropropagation of Quercus arbutifolia

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Qiansheng Li, Min Deng and Mengmeng Gu

Published May 2019 in International Oaks No. 30: 217–224


Quercus arbutifolia, a native and vulnerable species of section Cyclobalanopsis with only five known populations in China, is suffering severe decline in population size. To increase the number of individuals for further conservation, a micropropagation protocol is investigated. Nodal segments were cut from 2-year-old-seedling shoots as explants for aseptic initiation culture. Woody plant medium (WPM) with 0.5 mg/L BA was optimal for budding initiation to produce initial shoots for further subculture of proliferation. WPM with 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.02 mg/L IBA is suitable for subculture that can vigorously induce shoot regeneration. For rooting in vitro, WPM with 0.1 mg/L IBA and activated charcoal was suitable. Potting mix with 50% peat and 50% coarse perlite was recommended for greenhouse acclimatization.


Quercus arbutifolia, tissue culture, conservation, propagation


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Chalupa, V. 1993. Vegetative propagation of oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea) by cutting and tissue culture. Ann. For. Sci. 50: 295s-307s.

Deng, M., A.J. Coombes, and Q.S. Li. 2011. Lectotypification of Quercus arbutifolia (Fagaceae) and the taxonomic treatment of Quercus subsect. Chrysotrichae. Nordic Journal of Botany 29: 208-214.

José, M.C.S., M.T. Martínez, M.J. Cernadas, R. Montenegro, F. Mosteiro, and E.  Corredoira. 2017. Biotechnological efforts for the propagation of Quercus lusitanica Lam., an endangered species. Trees 31: 1571-1581.

Lebtahi, F., M.B. Errahmani, and N. Bouguedoura. 2015. Propagation of Cork Oak (Quercus suber L.) by Axillary Shoot and Somatic Embryogenesis. Propagation of Ornamental Plants 15: 113-122.

Martínez, M.T., E. Corredoira, A.M. Vieitez, M.J. Cernadas, R. Montenegro, A. Ballester, F.J. Vieitez, and M.C. San José. 2017. Micropropagation of mature Quercus ilex L. trees by axillary budding. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC) 131: 499-512.

Martínez, M.T., A.M. Vieitez, and E. Corredoira. 2015. Improved secondary embryo production in Quercus alba and Q. rubra by activated charcoal, silver thiosulphate and sucrose: influence of embryogenic explant used for subculture. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC) 121: 531-546.

Purohit, V.K., S. Tama, S. Chandra Handra, P. Vyas, L.M.S. Palni, and S.K. Nandi. 2002. In vitro multiplication of Quercus leucotrichophora and Q. glauca: Important Himalayan oaks. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 69: 121-133.

Vieitez, A.M., E. Corredoira, M.T. Martínez, M.C. San José, C. Sanchez, S. Valladares, N. Vidal, and A. Ballester. 2012. Application of biotechnological tools to Quercus improvement. European Journal of Forest Research 131: 519-539.

Xu, J., X.L. Jiang, M. Deng, M. Westwood, Y.G. Song, and S.S. Zheng. 2016. Conservation genetics of rare trees restricted to subtropical montane cloud forests in southern China: a case study from Quercus arbutifolia (Fagaceae). Tree Genetics & Genomes 12(5): 90.