Log in

Editor's Picks

The oak tree in Skjomendalen © Gerhard Sørensen-Fuglem and Cecilia Piccirilli Bjerkeset
An oak grows north of the Arctic Circle in Norway
Website Editor | Aug 14, 2023
Unusual symptoms linked to phytoplasma infection in Quercus humboldtiii, Colombia © Eric Boa
Symptoms linked to phytoplasma infection found in Quercus...
Website Editor | Aug 06, 2023
Different names are being used for one species.
Website Editor | Jun 20, 2023

Plant Focus

A small but mature Alabama sandstone oak producing acorns © Patrick Thompson
A Critically Endangered dwarf oak 

Anther Culture of Turkey Oak (Quercus cerris)

PDF icon Log in or register to access the full text.

Joseph Rothleutner

Published May 2016 International Oaks No. 27: 149–154


Oaks are difficult to breed by traditional methods because of the length of time required for trees to reach maturity, the large space needed to evaluate and maintain individuals, and their outcrossing behavior which leads to a high level of heterozygosity. Anther culture and creation of doubled haploids may be a way to significantly speed up the breeding process and achieve otherwise impossible breeding goals. In the creation of a doubled haploid, total homozygosity is achieved. With total homozygosity we will uncover recessive traits that are usually hidden in oaks, some of these traits may be of ornamental merit or be otherwise useful. Additionally, plants that are homozygous at all loci act as inbred lines, and by crossing two inbred lines, uniform F1 hybrids could be created. By selection of superior parent lines and ideal parent combinations, uniform F1 hybrid oak seed may be a mechanism for both nursery and forestry industries to achieve a consistent crop that behaves like seed-derived clones. In this article we explore the first steps towards regenerating plants from anthers and discuss potential applications of anther culture for oaks.


tissue culture, double haploid, ploidy, breeding, androgenesis


Bueno, M.A., A. Gómez, M. Boscaiu, J.A. Manzanera, and O. Vicente. 1997. Stress-induced formation of haploid plants through anther culture in cork oak (Quercus suber). Physiol. Plant. 99: 335-341. 

Bueno M.A., A.Gomez, F. Sepulveda, J.M. Segui, P.S. Testilano, J.A. Manzanera, and M.C. Risueňo. 2003. Microspore-derived embryos from Quercus suber anthers mimic zygotic embryos and maintain haploidy in long-term anther culture. J. Plant Physiol 160: 953-960. 

Gingas, V.M. 1991. Asexual Embyrogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Male Catkins of Quercus. HortScience 26(9): 1217-1218.

Jörgensen, J. 1993 Embyrogenesis in Quercus petraea. Ann. Sci .For. 50 (Suppl 1): 344s-350s.

Murovec, J. and B. Bohanec. 2012. Haplpoids and Doubled Haploids in Plant Breeding. In Plant Breeding. I. Abdurakhomonov (ed.) Rijeja, Croatia.

Pintos, B., J.A. Manzanera, and M.A. Bueno. 2010. Oak somatic and gametic embryos maturation is affected by charcoal and specific amino acids mixture. Ann. For. Sci. 67: 205.

Pintos, B., J.A. Manzanera, and M.A. Bueno. 2007. Protocol for Doubled-Haploid Micropropagation in Quercus suber L. and Assisted Verification. In Protocols for micropropagation of woody trees and fruits. S. Jain and H. Hȁggman (eds.) Dorecht, the Netherlands: Springer. 

Sasaki, Y., Y. Shoyama, I. Nishioka, and Tamio Suzaki. 1988. Clonal Propagation of Quercus acutissima Carruth by Somatic Embyrogenesis from Embryonic Axes. Journal of the Faulty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 33(1/2): 95-101.

Wilhelm, E. 2000. Somatic Embyrogenesis in Oak (Quercus Spp.). In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology–Plant 36: 349-357.